The Future Sound of London (often abbreviated to FSOL) is a British electronic music project composed of Garry "Gaz" Cobain and Brian Dougans. The duo are often credited with pushing the boundaries of electronic music experimentation and helping pioneer a new era of dance music. The group are often labelled as ambient, and although much of their output loosely fits under the term, their idiosynratic nature and broad range of influences result in a sound which cannot be easily typecast into any one particular genre. Over the years their sound has incorporated elements of acid house, techno, trip-hop, jazz, psychedelic rock, modern classical, breakbeat and various unclassifiable experimental sounds. The pair have always played down the role of FSOL as a band, instead describing it as a "broadcast system", incorporating film and video, 2D and 3D computer graphics, animation, radio broadcasting, writing, photography, an interest in artificial intelligence, and creating electronic devices. Under this role of multimedia curators, their full body of work can be seen to contain short films, music videos, books, ISDN transmissions, websites and various assumed aliases alongside their musical releases.
The pair have utilised many musical alter-egos over the years, although most of these can be regarded as offshoots of the larger experimental FSOL project. The main exception to this is The Amorphous Androgynous, the name used for their "psychedelic rocktronica" project which began in the late '90s and has continued alongside FSOL ever since.
Early years and Formation (1978 - 1987)Edit
Very little is known about the early lives of Brian and Gaz. Growing up, Brian had early exposure to electronic music, with his father creating soundtrack music for the Scottish film board and owning one of the first ever EMS Synthi instruments. Brian has stated that he was creating music from an early age, aided by use of his father's studio. The first known recordings date to 1978, with a twelve year old Dougans playing guitar in the band The Heads, with Eric Macintosh on vocals and Fraser Brown on drums. The raw, amateur punk music is a long way from what Dougans would become known as, but its real importance lies in his embracing the DIY spirit of punk at such a young age. Despite an upbringing on progressive rock, something about punk resonated.
While Dougans's musical roots featured a fleeting performance on guitar, Cobain's were embedded in the instrument. Coming from an indie background with a love of the melodramatic and ethereal sounds of the 4AD label - particularly Dead Can Dance and the Cocteau Twins - along with other staples of moody '80s indie kids, Joy Division and The Smiths, Gaz played guitar in several bands in his teens. Although a regular in the Bedford indie circuit with bands such as Exhibition (there's that Joy Division influence!), he was unsatisfied with the limitations of his home town. Escaping his provincial life in the south-midlands, he quickly relocated to Manchester, home of many of the UK's biggest bands of the time, to study music.
At the same time, Brian had formed Zeebox, a situationist sound art project inspired by Throbbing Gristle and Cabaret Voltaire. Armed with a tape recorder, Dougans recorded sounds wherever he went, eventually collaging and mixing them into post-industrial soundscapes. At the same time, he helped form the Glasgow art collective The New Consciousness. Newconc's lineup included John Hosie, Jon Goslan, Donald Matheson, Gags Perris, Martin + Al Bainbridge and Morgan Petrie, some of whom are referneced in the titles of Zeebox tracks. The project was eventually cut short, however, when Brian moved to Manchester himself, to study electronics.
The actual story of how Brian and Gaz met varies from interview to interview, but in short, the pair worked in the same bar, were introduced, and hated each other. A friendship quickly formed, however, and through this Gaz was introduced to electronic music. The Zeebox project continued through to 1987, at which point it was abandoned for a more collaborative approach: Dougans, Cobain, and a bassist called Ian McArthur formed a band called Twitch. The project was short lived - McArthur left after a falling out - but one tape was released, on Dougans and Cobain's short lived cassette imprint, entitled Bacteria From a Baboon's Stomach. Tired of the Manchester scene, the pair moved to London to further their music career, and in typical FSOL style, went their own ways on arrival.
Humanoid (1988 - 1990)Edit
Although often credited to Dougans and Cobain, the acid house breakthrough tune 'Stakker Humanoid' was actually created by Brian with help from engineer and producer John Laker. In fact, the success of the top 20 single and its accompanying Peel Session were partially the imputus behind moving to the capital. Accompanied by an inventive music video by graphics company Stakker (comprised of Manchester friends Mark Mclean and Colin Scott), the track, released under the name Humanoid, was a top 20 single in the UK and the first music by Dougans to see a large scale release.
Although a second single, 'Slam', sold well, Brian was receiving no money from his label, Westside, and was living in a squat in London. A full length Stakker video entitled Eurotechno was unable to bring in enough cash and, ill and dejected, he moved back to Glasgow to recover. With only handful of tracks complete, some including lyrics and vocal arrangements by Gaz, the Humanoid album Global was completed by producer Peter Black at the request of Westside, and rounded off by a Twitch track entitled 'Sunshine & Brick'. Three more singles were released from the album, although by this point a recovering Dougans was in court, eventually releasing himself from the restrictive contract Westwide had placed him in, and winning back the rights to the entire Humanoid catalogue in the process.
While all of this drama was happening, Gaz found himself in London armed only with his mouth, and went about networking with the rapidly growing post-rave electronic scene in the city, also managing to beg, borrow and steal whatever music gear he could. Upon Dougans's return, the pair regrouped, pooled their resources, and went off in search of inspiration.
Earthbeat (1990 - 1992)Edit
The first certifiable Dougans/Cobain release was Art Science Technology, released under the name A.S.T. Their debut was released, fittingly, on Debut Records; it also marked the beginning of an era characterised by one-off aliases. Incidentally, it was their first music to be built around sampling - in this case, a guitar and organ loop by The Stranglers; furthermore, their fictional engineer Yage is credited for the first time. Although still tied to the past, musically resembling Stakker Humanoid, the 12" was nevertheless an important release in the history of FSOL.
Over the course of 1990 and 1991, the pair released a further four 12" singles for Debut: releases by Yunie, Mental Cube and Candese. Mental Cube provided two of these, one of which featured the track 'Q', which was soon licensed to various European labels and became their biggest release to date. The You Took My Love EP as Candese was the first to feature a production credit by The Future Sound of London. From this point on, FSOL would be the producer and Yage the engineer of almost all future releases. Here, in many ways, starts the real story of The Future Sound of London. At the same time, Brian's old Stakker partner, Mark Mclean, reappeared under the guise of Buggy G. Riphead, and began to provide almost all of their artwork, a role he continues to this day.
After a move to Debut's sister-label Jumpin' & Pumpin' in mid-'91, the group continued to release 12"s every couple of months. The number of releases can be attributed to two factors: firstly, each alias featured a different sound, and so each release was an experiment, the pair trying out all approaches to see which fit best; secondly, they sold well enough to be a reliable pay check, enabling them to pay the rent on - and expand the contents of - the newly formed Earthbeat Studio in Dollis Hill, north London.
Their first release on J&P was entitled The Pulse EP and featured two tracks apiece by Indo Tribe and The Future Sound of London. If the opening FSOL piece, 'Hard Head', was an uncharacteristic slice of mindless hardcore rave, the second, 'Pulse State', signified things to come: deeper and more melodic than anything the pair had produced before, it made FSOL a name to watch. Nevertheless, the experiments continued, with a further five 12"s released before the end of the year, ranging from bleepy ambient techno to full on hardcore. The most experimental of these was a Mental Cube track that eschewed dance beats for airy breaks, and was fronted by a soaring Dead Can Dance sample. Not seeing it as a viable follow-up to the success of 'Q', J&P suggested a name-change, and so Dougans & Cobain decided to release Papua New Guinea as The Future Sound of London. It was fitting: FSOL had become their pet project, one which lay at the heart of all others, producing and overseeing all their range of aliases. No surprise, then, that they also chose the name to represent a collection of their most deep and unusual works of this era when presenting an album to Jumpin' & Pumpin'. The label weren't keen - dance music was still a singles market - but eventually agreed to release Accelerator, which became the band's debut album. The LP completed, worked continued as normal into 1992, starting with a 12" from Yage and a fourth entry to the Pulse EP series.
Early in 1992, 'Papua New Guinea' was selected for use on the soundtrack to the film Cool World. Through this, the track received a wider audience than the band were accustomed to, and its unique sound led to huge popularity, and huge demand for the 12". Jumpin' & Pumpin' complied, reissuing the single backed with remixed by Andy Weatherall, Hamish McDonald and the band themselves. Peaking at number 22 in the UK singles chart, the success quickly brought about reissues of Accelerator and Stakker Humanoid, the latter of which, backed with new remixes by the band, found its way into the UK top 40 for a second time. Papua New Guinea even had a Top of the Pops performance, with vocals sung live by studio hand Riz Maslen, who would later go on to form the electronic project Neotropic, and notably date Brian for several years. The success of these reissues afforded the band the freedom to look away from Jumpin' & Pumpin' for a more supportive label. Leaving behind a compilation of their favourite 12" tracks entitled Earthbeat, the pair moved on briefly to Union City Records to release the housey Metropolis, as well as provide remixes for Unity on the same label. Metropolis was the last of the early 12" singles, with the material the band were now working on moving away from the dance music sound of the day.
Abandoning the 12" single format can be seen as the first step towards the all-encompassing multi-media approach favoured by the band. In late '92 they provided the first of their now legendary broadcasts to Kiss FM. The first two 'Test Transmissions' were provided as two and three hour shows, hosted by Yage and Cyberface (effectively Gaz pitched up and down an octave, talking to himself). Behind this whimsical banter were all kinds of field recordings, synth effects and samples in what the group would go on to describe as "environments". Although these sections looked to the band's future, the rest of the shows featured the pair spinning a range of house, techno and leftfield sounds of the day, including a large number of exclusive white labels, often many months before they received proper release. These, along with guest mixes from the likes of Leftfield, The Black Dog, Sasha and Andy Weatherall, were all fruits of Gaz and Brian's years on the London scene - Gaz, in particular, seemed to be friends with just about everybody.
The success of these shows led to six more three hour broadcasts on Kiss FM in 1992 and 1993, all credited to The Future Sound of London. These later shows (thankfully) removed Yage and Cyberface, replacing them with the arsenal of film dialogue the pair had been recording for the previous year. With each successive show the sound became gradually more ambient and less dance-based; by shows five and six, the bulk of the material played was unreleased music by the duo themselves. Most of this would end up on Lifeforms and ISDN the following year, although a significant proportion of each show was taken up with the kind of abstract 'environments' used to stitch the albums together with.
At the same time, the band's much in-demand remix work was taking a similarly abstract turn. After earlier remixes went under a variety of names, by late 1992 all remix worked undertaken was credited to FSOL. If their 15 minute laid back house mix of Inner City's 'Praise' was seen as progressive, then their remixes of Curve and Sylvian & Fripp in early 1993 blew genre distinctions out of the water, both tracks running to ten minutes and blending Tangerine Dream-style space music with ethnic percussion on an epic scale. By mid-1993, the FSOL name had become intrinsically attached to otherworldly, experimental electronic music. With electronic music gradually receiving more mainstream exposure, it's no surprise that at this point the major labels came knocking.
The actual details of FSOL's deal with Virgin Records remain a point of absurd speculation, with tales ranging from A&R men being told to sit on a soaking wet chair (the Virgin representative refused), to the label only signing the band because they'd been unsuccessful signing Leftfield and wanted a competitor. FSOL were granted an advance (again, speculation suggests anything from £75,000 to £250,000), which was quickly spent on vastly expanding the Earthbeat studio, both physically and conceptually. With more room to play with, the pair broadened their range of gear, taking on board state of the art computer graphic equipment and software. With the duo's increasing focus on independence and full control over their art, all album sleeves and music videos were produced in house, directed by the band and Buggy G. Riphead. This is immediately evident on their first release of 1993, entitled Tales of Ephidrina
Having settled on a name for a couple of years, in typically contrary style, the album was released under a new alias. Amorphous Androgynous - literally 'shapeless sexless' - was the artist name given to the album, suggesting a level of anonymity. The album was created as a bridge between the sound of Accelerator and what was to come, and was originally slated for an independent release. It was eventually released on Quigley, a Virgin offshoot created to distribute FSOL's own EBV records. At the time EBV stood for Earth Beat Vision, although it soon came be known as Electronic Brain Violence and, jokingly, Extraordinary Beautiful Vagina. The album itself had been heard throughout the earliest Kiss shows, and in similar style blended techno beats with more advanced ambient environments and downtempo tracks.
Lifeforms, ambience and the ISDN tour (1993-1995)Edit
Only a few months after the subdued release of Tales of Ephidrina came the first new FSOL material since Papua New Guinea, almost 18 months before. The Cascade EP was the group's first proper release on Virgin, and defied expectations of the wider audience hoping for a stylistic follow-up to their previous hit. Removed entirely from dance music, laid back breakbeats, ethnic flutes and analogue synth sequences formed the basis of the four minute radio edit. In an unprecedented move, the full version of the track was over half and hour long and split over five tracks. Despite its drastically uncommercial nature, it still reached the UK top 30. With an advanced music video, and cover art featuring the first appearance of Olaf Wendt's "spike" model - which has become better known in the fanbase as The Electronic Brain - the release contained all the hallmarks of what would become FSOL's most memorable sound and look.
'Cascade' was due to be followed in early 1994 by the Lifeforms single, a collaboration with Liz Fraser from the Cocteau Twins. Licensing issues over Fraser's vocal performance, however, put the single on seemingly indefinite hold. Instead, fans had to wait until the full Lifeforms album came out in May for their next taste of FSOL. Despite a few references to its prog rock flirtations in length (not to mention synth squelches), the album received huge critical acclaim on its release, and reached number 6 in the UK album chart. Most of the album had been broadcast as it was completed via the band's Kiss FM shows, over the course of 18 months, with a handful of tracks retaining the vaguest of links to the band's dance music roots, but most of the pieces eschewing straight foward beats for complex, mid-tempo rhythms, ambient synth flourishes, field recordings, film quotes, and sample-dense collaged production. Throughout the record, familiar motifs and samples were repeated, sitting alongside tropical birdsong, rainfall, wind and an array of other exotic sounds, lending the album a natural, organic feel. The sound was exotic, with artwork to match: model Shauneen Ta makes her first appearance on the cover, with numerous landscape shots of deserts on the inlay. A double album, running to 90 minutes, Lifeforms was a hugely adventurous record, and one that has become a classic of its era. Despite the LP charting new territories, the inner sleeve showed no shame in the band's past: a brief discography highlighted 'Papua New Guinea', Accelerator, Tales of Ephidrina, 'Cascade' and an as-yet unreleased Amorphous Androgynous album with a black cover, named Environments.
Never ones to follow the traditional root, Dougans and Cobain did not take to the road to tour the album. A variety of reasons can be given for this: Cobain bemoaned the music establishment's demand for electronic music to be taken on tour like rock music; a stage tour would not have fit with their broadcast system concept; there's also little chance they would have been able to play live successfully without taking their entire studio with them. However, whatever the reasoning, the FSOL broadcast system found a better way to tour: using then-new ISDN phone link technology, they played from their studio to radio stations and art spaces around the world. Although making the band far less money than a traditional tour would have, Cobain spoke about the democracy of the tour: everybody has a radio, and thus their shows were available to all at no cost. The approach also enabled the band to broadcast dense, sample-laden soundscapes, as opposed to providing a more traditional song-based performance. Dubbed the "3D Headspace Tour", initial shows were broadcast in May 1994 to various UK radio stations, as well as The Kitchen art space in New York, and a radio station in Rome. The shows themselves were an evolution from the Kiss shows, removing all sense of DJing and focusing on creating an evocative, ever-changing soundscape. Famously the group jammed with King Crimson guitarist Robert Fripp for their Radio 1 performance.
Taking the summer off from their ISDN performances, other than a couple of tapes of performances shipped to American radio stations, the group concentrated on the finally released Lifeforms EP. Expanding on the longform single approach heard the previous year on Cascade, Lifeforms was split into seven distinct 'Paths'. The album version occupied 'Path 3'; the musically unrelated single version was an edit of 'Path 4'. The remainder of the EP was a darker version of the band's sound, heavier on acoustic percussion and eastern instrumentation. Liz Fraser's vocals were cut up and used as samples throughout the EP, lending it a more natural, organic sound than many of their electronic contemporaries. Backed by a music video heavy on computer generated imagery (along with appearances by Shauneen and the Electronic Brain), the single managed to exceed expectations, peaking at number 16 in the UK singles charts. The video footage itself was taken from the short film released on VHS to accompany the release of Lifeforms. This film was a teaser for Yage: The Movie, originally announced in the press release of Tales of Ephidrina the previous year. The single was promoted in the US by their American label, Astralwerks, by being the first ever downloadable piece of music. It seemed that the more experimental the band's output was, the more popular they became. A third single, Eggshell, was mooted for late 1994, but by this point the band had already moved on in style. Ironically, just at this point, Jumpin' & Pumpin' cashed in on FSOL's new found success by issuing Expander as a single. Although the radio edit was a new cut, the b-sides were already released. Nevertheless, the single still penetrated the UK top 100 singles.
Two further ISDN broadcasts took place in September of 1994, containing a very different range of sounds. Although a few of these tracks had featured on the 3D Headspace Tour, the overall tone of the shows was much darker and rhythmic than the Lifeforms era. Hip-hip, trip-hop and jazz rhythms were largely to the fore, while the seguing environments were less spacious, and much darker and claustrophobic. It was this sound that was cherry picked from the year's performances to form the ISDN album at the end of the year. Packaged in a plain black sleeve (as a nod to The Beatles' White Album) with strange graphics on the interior, the album was a much less accessible collection than anything the group had released before. This was furthered still by its limited edition release selling out almost immediately. A disturbing, unearthly record, Dougans has gone on to claim ISDN as his favourite FSOL album. It certainly sums up the sprawling nature of their most experimental end better than any other work.
ISDN was promoted by a single in 1995. The track, The Far-out Son of Lung and the Ramblings of a Madman, had been issued as an anonymous 12" the previous year, masquerading as a Japanese trip-hop act (most reviewers saw through the Far-out Son Of Lung alias immediately), backed with ISDN material, as well as an old Zeebox track. The 1995 single featured exclusive material on the b-side, and the band's second short film was released to accompany it, featuring video footage for each of the single's tracks. Shortly afterwards, ISDN finally received a full, unlimited release, including alternate mixes of the exclusive tracks from the Far-out Son single. A 16 page booklet accompanying the CD featured a broad range of images, including pictures of Shauneen, the Electronic Brain, and Vit, owner of a Dollis Hill noodle bar, who had previously appeared on the Far-out Son cover and video. The album's release was promoted by their first DJ mix since 1993, on BBC Radio 1's Essential Mix show. The mix, subtitled 'Fuct Up Soup', saw the group dive deep into a very different sound, blending funk and psych rock with industrial beats and hip-hop. The only FSOL piece in the mix was a new recording entitled 'Carlos'. A world away from the ambient sound they were at the forefront of only a year before, the Essential Mix tied up this era of the band on a strange note, with the future open to endless possibilities.
Dead Cities (1995-1997)Edit
Much in the way Lifeforms began with the late 1992 Kiss mixes, Dead Cities began in mid '95 with FSOL's second Peel Session. In the band's typically forward-thinking style, they chose to use the session to broadcast three demos they'd been working on during the year. These pieces, early versions of 'My Kingdom', 'Yage' and 'Quagmire', were performed again a few weeks later to the Art Futura festival in Barcelona, alongside three other new recordings. This was the last the public heard of the group for almost a year. In that time, Dougans and Cobain returned to the studio once more to finish their next album. Excessive drug use and partying by Cobain, commercial pressures by Virgin and a general sense of unhappiness led to a much angrier and overall more emotional album than previously heard from the band. Inspired more by real world experiences and travelling around London, Dead Cities was a colder, harder and more urban sounding recording than Lifeforms and ISDNs otherworldly escapism. Delivered to Virgin in June under the pretense of a terrorist attack, and armed with a brutal slice of breakbeat that was created as a satire of contemporary dance music in 'We Have Explosive', the album took no prisoners from the off. A 192 page book accompanied the first 10,000 copies of Dead Cities, furthering the pair's forays into multimedia. The book featured a huge range of imagery, plus three paranoid stories written by Cobain, no doubt told from the perspective of characters from the bleak world of urban decay heard in the music itself.
Which isn't to say it was all harsh. Lead single My Kingdom introduced the album in October 1996, with a shuffling drum loop, Morricone flutes, a beautiful synth breakdown and, in one of the band's finest moments, a haunting Mary Hopkin vocal that seemed to emerge from a distant bank of fog. The typical longform single included a dramatic reworking from Arcon 2's Leon Mar, one of several new friends the band had made during the album's recording. Another of these was former Snuff guitarist Simon Wells, who provided the raw material for Dead Citiess punk-sounding hidden track. My Kingdom charted at number 13, the band's highest position at the time, which earned them a video broadcast on Top of the Pops. Combining the cutting edge graphics of earlier videos with specially shot footage around London, featuring Wells and Vit, the promo clip was a high point of their visual career so far. Despite a large press campaign and the group's best reviews to date, the album failed to replicate the success of Lifeforms, only reaching 22 in the UK albums chart. Certainly some fans were disenchanted by the harder, more rigid sound. Nevertheless, over years the album has become as popular as Lifeforms, notably gaining fans among the IDM community.
A second full ISDN tour followed to promote the album - sometimes referred to as the "Fuck Rock'n'Roll tour" - although the musical contents this time were much more traditional. Each night, one or two broadcasts of between 30 and 120 minutes would eminate from Earthbeat studios, each playing a tracks from Dead Cities as well as several pieces from the large pool of tracks that did not make the album's final cut. Over the course of the tour, the band had chance to reassess the album's material, with Gaz later admitting he felt a better version of the album would have come from the live performances. Such an album was mooted for release, with promo discs distributed under the title ISDN Show. However, the band's penchant for sampling from films in their transmissions meant a full release never happened, with licensing costs too high to justify it. Despite this disappointment, the pair's multimedia ambitions were furthered with the broadcast of Teachings From the Electronic Brain, a half hour short film, on MTV. Containing elements of past music videos with much new footage, and a discography-spanning soundtrack, the film was well received and suggested good things for the long-overdue Yage: The Movie. The band expanded the Dead Cities experience with an interactive website containing sound and video clips from the album, plus a huge range of text and imagery from throughout the band's history.
With the release of We Have Explosive in March 1997, the band completed the promotional campaign for Dead Cities. Although the track had been written as a parody of the music Dougans and Cobain felt Virgin were expecting from them, they embraced the option of releasing the single as a to experiment with new sounds they'd been discovering. As with My Kingdom, Leon Mar provided a rhythmic reworking, as well as two much funkier versions under his new guise as Oil. The band themselves then provided a funk track that was totally unlike anything they had released before, yet managed to tie in with the final track on the longform EP, which blended dark ambience with a loose band feel. With the track popular from its appearance on the wipEout 2097 game, plus the group's most commercial sound since Papua New Guinea, it is no surprise that the single went on to be FSOL's highest ever charting single in the UK, entering at number 12. What was less expected, however, is that it was to be the last FSOL release for many years. As with Lifeforms, a planned third single - this time for 'Glass' - never happened.
The Lost Fifth Album and the wilderness years (1997-2001)Edit
If the band were somewhat conservative on their Dead Cities tour, they made up for it in 1997. In March, only two months after the tour had ended, they gave an ISDN performance to BBC Radio 3's Mixing It show which comprised four new pieces. Over the course of half an hour, listeners were treated to 'live' instrumentation such as acoustic guitar and electric bass, sung vocals, and a version of 'Herd Killing' with funk bass. In the summer, their third Peel Session was comprised of five entirely new pieces, with guitars and organs throughout. A further performance to Fun Radio in France included even more new compositions, with one featuring sitar. A planned performance to the Essential Festival in Brighton was set to have a similar setlist, but unfortunately the nearest thing to a traditional live performance the group had attempted ended after ten minutes with technological failure.
FSOL's final transmission of 1997 took the hints of psychedelic rock from those performances and turned them up to 11: a DJ set blending psychedelic sounds from the summer of 1967 up to The Chemical Brothers' 'Private Psychedelic Reel', replete with FSOL environments and film samples. Fans were eager to hear a new album, with the possibility of psychedelic sounds blended with forward thinking electronica. However, after that final Kiss show, fittingly titled A Monstrous Psychedelic Bubble Exploding in Your Mind, all went quiet. No public announcements were made until 2001. The band's management provided the Nick Woodfine's popular FSOL fansite with occasional updates: a new album was due variously in 1998, 1999 and 2000, taking influence from acid rock and including a song called 'Little Miss Divinity'. But nothing solid emerged, apart from bootleg remixes of 'Papua New Guinea' and 'Stakker Humanoid'.
In truth, the band had been pursuing new paths since mid-'96. Having purged the anger from their systems through the recording of Dead Cities, both Dougans and Cobain had moved on from its darker vibe and started exploring drastically different sounds. The pair began scouring cheap record boxes in charity shops and markets for interesting music that would reflect their new found interest in groovier sounds as an antidote to the increasingly stale tunes coming from the contemporary electronic scene. Leon Mar's funky breaks project Oil had a big influence on the group's new sound, and several sessions took place at Ram Studios (Leon Mar's real name being Noel Ram) following the completion of the album. The EBV label was resurrected in late 1997 to release an EP by Oil, along with Simon Wells's Headstone Lane project, blending lo-fi folktronica with hints of drum'n'bass. However, instead of completing a new FSOL album in late '97 for release early in '98, things changed. Gaz's perspective on music altered considerably, and he began to travel. He also got ill, a condition which was later attributed to mercury contained in the fillings in his teeth. After their removal, he took the opportunity to travel further, spending his Virgin Records advance and maxing out credit cards as he took a spiritual journey which included trips to India and Mexico.
The timeline of this era is very difficult to work out, even from interviews. Gaz started his travels with a trip to LA with Ian Astbury, singer of The Cult. Astbury was co-writer of 'The Shining Path', a track which featured throughout the 1997 transmissions. Considerable work on the new album was made in 1998, with guitar and vocal tracks laid down, adding a totally new dimension to the band's sound. Around this time, the group were forced out of Earthbeat studios by developers, and Brian set up a new studio in Shoreditch, installing new Apple hardware. At some point, Gaz went entirely off the map, only traceable by credit card statements. Communication between him and Brian ended all together, and Dougans was left wondering whether their music collaboration had ended. He began to teach himself more about his new Macintosh computer and learn pinhole photography. One version of the story has anonymous cassettes arriving through the post containing recordings of songs written by Gaz. Eventually they reconvened, starting with awkward bike rides in the country. A mysterious EP appeared online several years later titled 1999 EP, which included several unfinished tracks from later releases. However it happened, by 2000 both musicians were in the studio, having recorded a huge number of songs and worked with countless guest musicians, attempting to piece together something that resembled a finished album. Gaz performed a one-off DJ set in Japan under the name The Mello Hippo Disco Show. A half-finished EBV website from 1997 was updated to feature working titles, psychedelic imagery, and lots of images relating to the same Hippopotamus-related disco. In early 2001, this website was replaced by a selection of images by Paula Flack, friend of the band, photographer and EMI employee. Fans were left baffled, but intrigued.
Return from the brink (2001-2002)Edit
Having disappeared suddenly in 1997, FSOL reappeared just as suddenly in 2001. Following the popular bootleg 12" by Krafty Kutz the previous year, Jumpin' & Pumpin' reissued Stakker Humanoid, the Krafty Kutz mix backed with a Plump DJs remake of the track. At some point, Brian and Gaz had realised that 'Papua New Guinea' had never received the longform single treatment, and with the 10th anniversary of the tracks's original release approaching, set about correcting this. Thus, late 2001 saw reissues of 'Papua New Guinea' and Accelerator, along with the new mini-album Papua New Guinea Translations. New mixes of the track were created by Hybrid and Satoshi Tommiie (at the label's request); plus Simian and Oil (at the band's request). The Accelerator reissue packaged together the original album with a bonus disc of various 'Papua' remixes. On Translations the band finally gave the track a longform workout, whilst cunningly introducing the new sound they'd been experimenting with over the past five years. While translations like 'Papsico' and 'The Great Marmalade Mama in the Sky' kept to the band's electronic roots, the rest of the mini-album focused much more on live instrumentation, including backward guitars, sitar, funk bass, harmonica and vocals.
The 2001 reissues were supported by a range of new DJ mixes in various forms. Gaz DJ'd live at The Big Chill in Lulworth, playing a range of psychedelic, funk and folk music, entirely removed from even the psychedelic electronics of Translations. A similar DJ set formed a FSOL support slot for a Simian gig in London. Similar selections of material, tied together by spoken samples and field recordings were broadcast online and on radio, initially as The Mello Hippo Disco Radio Show, and then simply as The Future Sound of London (these would later be revealed to be further part of the Monstrous Psychedelic Bubble Exploding In Your Mind series). Regardless of their titles, these mixes displayed very little of the environmental soundscapes present even in the 1997 Monstrous Psychedelic Bubble mix, and many fans were concerned about the direction the band were taking.
2001 also boasted the launch of futuresoundoflondon.com, a flash-based site which featured several interactive elements such as a 'Cosmic Jukebox' which played FSOL remixes of various 1970s psychedelic tracks along with clips of forthcoming material, a diary of the band's journey since 1996 written by Gaz, entitled Ramblings of a Madman (and never updated after chapter 3), and a shop announcing releases of Brian's '80s Zeebox material as well as a double disc album of unreleased Humanoid material. Gaz reappeared in the press at this point, explaining in detail about where the band had been and why they had changed direction.
The Rise of Amorphous Androgynous (2002-2005)Edit
The Isness, credited to Amorphous Androgynous, by its very nature a massive risk and a hugely polarising album, was not helped by having one of the most confusing album releases of all time. Originally scheduled for release in June 2002, promotional copies were distributed and met with mostly positive reviews (Muzik magazine famously awarding it a Spinal Tap-esque 6/5). A month before release it was announced the album had been put back two months as the band had done more work on it (a decision later regretted by Cobain). The next version of the album featured a radically altered tracklist, yet promo copies were packaged in the same sleeve as the original, leading to many reviews of the album referencing incorrect song titles. By the time the album was finally released, the tracklist had changed once again. The band expressly wanted the album released as Amorphous Androgynous to highlight it not being a FSOL release, yet their American label refused to release it as anything other than FSOL, and put out a press release not even highlighting the radical difference in sound. Throw in the 2CD version with a bonus disc, and the version announced in 2001 entitled Galaxial Pharmaceutical, with yet another tracklist, and the whole thing became a farce.
Upon release, despite a year of build up through radio mixes, Translations and a lot of interviews, fans were still shocked by the sound of The Isness. In hindsight, it is closer to the FSOL sound than any later Amorphous Androgynous albums. Yet the presence of sitar on almost every track, whimsical lyrics on several, guitar solos and spiritual themes made the record a distinctly difficult listen for those expecting futuristic electronica. Steeped in the history of psychedelic music, the album was, at the time, considered a side-project. Nevertheless, despite some negative coverage, the press largely received the album positively, with publications such as The Times, The Guardian, Mojo, The NME, Pitchfork and Muzik giving the album glowing reviews.
The Mello Hippo Disco Show was released as an EP in late 2002, featuring eight alternate versions of the track over a typically FSOL extended workout. The EP was not chart eligible and was, like the album, released on FSOL's own branch of the Artful label; as such, it received relatively little press coverage. Throughout the year, and into 2003, the face of the band was presented by Gaz in interviews, in which he talked less about FSOL and more about Amorphous Androgynous and the spirituality behind the music. At the same time, further installments in the Monstrous Psychedelic Bubble series of mixes were broadcast to various radio stations. Fans who disliked the new psychedelic direction were rewarded for their patience in 2003 with the first CD and LP edition of the Eurotechno Soundtrack, as well as unreleased Humanoid acid house material on Humanoid Sessions 84-88, both released on Aphex Twin's Rephlex label.
In 2004, The Isness was released with a bonus disc of outtakes and alternate versions entitled The Otherness, including several tracks from the scrapped second single from the album, Divinity. Promo CD editions of this single were eventualy sold through the Artful website, including a live version of the track that introduced the first full band incarnation of the Amorphous Androgynous (building on previous live DJ sets which had been augmented by live instrumentation from various Amorphous collaborators). At the same time, the band's management had announced that new FSOL material was around the corner, and that both FSOL and Amorphous Androgynous would continue simultaneously as equal projects.
The following year, rumours of an imminent FSOL album were quashed with the announcement and release of the second album by the psychedelic incarnation of Amorphous Androgynous, the name now preceded by a rock band-style 'The'. Alice In Ultraland, although built largely from jams by the new Amorphous live band - which had begun to play slots at festivals - was better received by fans of the band's electronic sound, partially through the relative lack of sitar, and the inclusion of abstract segues between tracks. The album itself drew more on funk and blues than the electronic-tinged Isness, although the closing run of tracks was particularly praised by fans for its focus on modern classical sounds and moody progressive rock. A film accompanying the album was mentioned by Gaz but, like so many of the pair's projects, has never surfaced.
Despite being released by EMI, resurrecting their progressive arm Harvest especially for the album, and a promotional single in The Witchfinder, the album was almost uniformly ignored by the press, and live shows at various festivals went largely unpromoted. As 2006 rolled around, it seemed as if things in the world of Dougans and Cobain had largely ground to a halt.
5.1 & Digital experimentation (2006-2007)Edit
The Future Sound of London moniker finally re-appeared in 2006. At this point, Virgin had decided it was time for an official FSOL 'best of' compilation. With no choice in the matter, the band made the most of the situation and chose the tracklisting. Despite this official sanctioning, the album was very poorly received amongst fans, criticised for its lack of segues between tracks - arguably one of the defining characteristics of FSOL albums - and for the lack of representation of Lifeforms . It was later revealed that the emphasis on Dead Cities material was largely due to Gaz treating the compilation as an opportunity for him to make peace with the album, after severely criticising it during the promotion of The Isness. Despite the disappointing nature of the album itself, it was promoted by the first radio show by the electronic side of FSOL in ten years, broadcast on BBC Radio 6. The show mixed classic FSOL tracks with unreleased pieces and favourite tracks by the band.
Later in 2006, FSOL unveiled a surround sound piece entitled A Gigantic Globular Burst Of Anti-Static, created for an exhibition at the Kinetica art museum entitled, appropriately, "Life Forms". The piece contained reworked elements of 'Eggshell' alongside newly recorded material, mixed in 5.1. The piece was coupled with a short film called "Stereo Sucks", released as a DVD packaged with issue 182 of Future Music Magazine in December 2006, in which the band discussed the ideas of working in surround sound. Stereo mixes of these sessions were finally released by the band in 2007.
Members of the ever-inquisitive fanbase also discovered glitch.tv, a website run by Brian, which promoted a forthcoming DVD by Part-Sub-Merged, containing stark electronic music matched with footage filmed around Dougans's new home in Somerset. Elsewhere on the site, circuit bent devices made by Dougans, were listed for sale. These were the first hints of complete independence from the band, as well as suggestions that Brian was making his own electronic music away from the psychedelic Amorphous project. While Gaz took the Amorphous band to festivals in Russia and Australia, Brian began building his new home studio to resemble Earthbeat as closely as possible.
FSOLdigital and the Archives (2007-2008)Edit
In 2007, the band unveiled an official MySpace page, featuring several tracks listed simply by numbers from their archive. Shortly afterwards, they unveiled FSOLDigital, the band's new label set up to distribute their own material and that of theirfriends. Although exciting - particularly for fans who feared the electronic side of the band had been lost forever - the initial launch was seen as somewhat overwhelming. The main attraction was a series of albums titled From the Archives in three volumes, highlighting around 60 tracks recorded between 1990 and 2001 that had never received a full release; some were known from ISDN transmissions or promotional releases, but the bulk were entirely unheard. Fans took the opportunity to speculate on the origin of each individual piece. However, alongside these were the previously discovered solo experiments by Dougans (as Part-Sub-Merged and the circuit-bent works of Polemical), as well as a selection of tracks originally created for 5.1 entitled The San Monta Tapes; the aforementioned A Giant Globular Burst of Anti-Static, two 30-track volumes of Brian's Zeebox material, and a free download of an experimental piece credited to both FSOL and Amorphous entitled 'A Tiny Point of Light'.
Later in 2007, the FSOLDigital store received an overhaul, including two much anticipated albums. The first, a fourth volume in the From the Archives series, trimmed the excess of the first three releases and added segues near the end, leaving a more satisfying listening experience. The second was Environments, the long awaited album as advertised in the sleeve of Lifeforms 13 years previously. Featuring two side-long tracks inspired by '70s Krautrock and Berlin-School music, the album combined familiar elements of the 3D Headspace Tour with spacey synth sequences, giving an idea of the direction the band could have taken had they not moved toward the sounds of ISDN. In their first full magazine feature in years, both Brian and Gaz discussed the history of the group and their recent archived releases, revealing that the idea originally came about while looking for exclusive material to accompany the 2006 best-of. The magazine was packaged with a mix CD containing several FSOLDigital tracks, including a piece purporting to be from an album entitled Environments 2. At the same time, Brian celebrated the 20th anniversary of Stakker Humanoid by securing remixes from various contemporary electronic artists, released in a collection entitled Your Body Robotic, which also featured the first official release of the Humanoid Peel Session from 1988.
After the success of the FSOLDigital launch in 2007, the following year saw the band fire on all cylinders. 2008 opened with The Peppermint Tree and the Seeds of Superconsciousness, an album that began as an Amorphous Androgynous take on the From the Archives series, but with much re-recording eventually became the third Amorphous Androgynous psychedelic album. Although not received as well as the previous two Amorphous records, partially for its mixed production quality due to its semi-archived nature, the album still contained some fan-favourites, and provided an important cutoff point for the project, eschewing all the ambient and modern classical elements of the previous two albums in favour of a full live-band sound. The first ever album by Yage followed shortly after, entitled The Woodlands of Old. A mysterious record, in both origin and sound, the music blended the dark atmospherics of classic FSOL with the psychedelic instrumentation of Amorphous Androgynous.
Gradually CD issues caught up with the digital albums. Included in this release campaign were two albums of early material: The Pulse EPs gathered material from the titular 12" EPs (and was promoted by a reissue of The Tingler featuring new remixes); By Any Other Name featured archived recordings of outtakes from the groups Jumpin' & Pumpin' era under various aliases. The re-emergence of The Future Sound of London as an ongoing concern also saw the return of FSOL radio mixes. A new run of shows entitled Electric Brain Storms began in June 2008 on Proton Radio, with the series continued regularly over the following months. These shows featured a mix of unreleased FSOL material and selections of favourite tracks - in particular, experimental electronics from the 1950s-1970s, modern classical and krautrock were favoured, giving the shows a very distinct sound from the band's previous electronica-focused mixes.
In August 2008, From the Archives vol. 5 and Environments 2 were released on FSOLDigital with no warning. The second Environments was a particular surprise as, unlike the first volume, the album was not comprised of 3D Headspace Tour-esque soundscapes. Instead, an entirely new album seemed to have been crafted out of archived recordings, with a vast, expansive sound built around extensive use of strings, choirs and other acoustic sounds. With a chilly sound and titles such as 'North Arctic' and 'Ice Formed', the album managed to work as entirely new FSOL sonic world, despite its piecemeal nature. It was met with near-universal praise from fans; similarly, the fifth Archive album was very popular, expanding on the coherence of the previous volume, and containing many of the much sought-after tracks from the lost fifth album. By June 2008, the Archives series had sold in excess of 15,000 copies despite next to no promotion. Dougans, despite being considered the quiet one of the pair, was communicating with fans through the FSOLDigital portal, and commented "we are delighted that people still dig us - we dig you all too."
A Monstrous Psychedelic Bubble Exploding in Your Mind (2008-2010)Edit
While announced in 2003 that the pair would continue alternate between FSOL and Amorphous, this approach did not see light properly until 2008. Having spent two years working on a follow-up to their radio mix series with a 2CD release of the same name, the extensive licensing process was finally complete and Amorphous Androgynous finally released the first Monstrous Psychedelic Bubble Exploding In Your Mind album. The album met with positive reviews, but it wasn't until Oasis guitarist Noel Gallagher discovered the record and started proclaiming it his favourite album in interviews that it started to receive wider attention. By the end of the year Gallagher had converted his friend Paul Weller into a fan, and secured a Monstrous Psychedelic Bubble remix of what would be the final Oasis single, 'Falling Down'. Brian and Gaz responded in a typically perverse manner by supplying a five-part, 22 minute remix EP of its own right. Loved by both Gallagher brothers and received with unanimous praise by the press, the remix proved a sea change in the fortunes of Amorphous, and overnight the collective changed from a critically ignored side-project into critical darlings of new psychedelia. Riding on the success, the second volume of the A Monstrous Psychedelic Bubble CD series was a second Amorphous set, which was received with widespread acclaim and won awards for 'compilation of the year'. The popularity of the Oasis remix brought more work in the band's direction, and they took on remix work from the likes of Paul Weller and Pop Levi. The live Amorphous band took to the stage again supporting Hawkwind, and a Monstrous Psychedelic Bubble stage was curated by Gaz and Brian as part of 2009's Green Man Festival. The inevitable third volume of the double CD series was met with continued acclaim upon its release in 2010, around the time it was announced that Noel Gallagher was working with the band on what was due to be his second solo album. After years of relative obscurity, The Amorphous Androgynous was now a highly sought after production, remix and DJ duo.
Expansion of FSOLDigital and the Environments series (2009-2012)Edit
While Dougans and Cobain were enjoying the overdue critical acclaim of The Amorphous Androgynous, FSOL appeared to be back in favour too. Having not broadcasted a live performance since 1997, a mini-tour was announced in 2009, taking in ISDN performances at various live events. Eventually only three of these shows would go ahead: a headlining slot at 2009's BLOC festival which received a mixed response from attendees hoping for someone more dance-based (and actually present at the venue!); a performance at Bestival which ended in similar technological problems to 1997's Essential Festival show; and a show in Athens which overcame all difficulties and was hugely popular with the crowd. A DVD of the show was in the works, with an abundance of DVD extras teased through Brian's YouTube account in 2009; in typical fashion, the band lost the footage and the DVD looks to be yet another abandoned release.
Picking up where EBV left off, FSOLDigital began to distribute music by other artists in 2009. Releases by friends of the band Neotropic, Seafar and Second Thought appeared first, with a number of other digital releases following later, including rare CD releases distributed by the label. With the addition of The Pod Room to the site, focusing on the band's DJ mixes as well as a selection of ISDN recordings, the multimedia aspect of FSOL and their label began to look like an ongoing concern once again. From 2009, the Electric Brainstorms series of podcasts were released sporadically through The Pod Room, with an increasing focus on vintage analogue electronic sounds, field recordings and modern classical elements. Exclusive tracks premiered on these shows eventually culminated in the long-awaited Environments 3 in June 2010. Featuring a thematic return to Dead Cities, the album had a mix reception from fans, who largely praised the classical ambience of the album's new recordings, but criticised their awkward blending with familiar archived recordings. A sixth From the Archives album closed the year, for the first time playing as a single segued album, and containing some of the most popular tracks of the series, although receiving some criticism for the editing of individual tracks.
2011 was an uncharacteristically quiet year, with the only signs of life coming in October with the arrival of the seventh Electric Brain Storms mix. Containing only material by the band, their aliases, and FSOLDigital artists, the mix closely resembled the deep atmospherics of the group's 1990s mixes and was met with considerable enthusiasm from fans; the melancholic nature of the set coupled with retro electronic sounds and samples from a vintage documentary posing questions about the future of electronic music led to much fan speculation as to the direction of FSOL, and whether Dougans and Cobain would ever return to futuristic sounds. With the arrival of the fourth volume in the Environments series it appeared that elements of FSOL and Amorphous had merged together to form a new sound. Unlike the previous volumes, the album was perceived as an album displaying the band's present workflow. Built around elements of live instrumentation including guitar, piano, saxophone, bass and vocals, along with trademark FSOL drum loops, synths and field recordings, the album had a distinctly 'live' feel to it, with elements of psychedelia amongst the ambience. Although the change of sound put some fans off, the album's consistent sound and atmospheric similarity with the exotic sounds of the group's mid-'90s output proved popular enough to suggest overall approval in this new nostalgic FSOL sound. For those left wanting the more traditional Dougans/Cobain sound, the seventh Archive album followed a few months later, with a similar mood but a hazy sample-based electronic production, and was hailed as the best of the series to date.
The Retro Sound of London (2013-2016)Edit
The group's particular interest in retro sounds - not just psychedelic, but vintage electronics - was brought to the fore with a series of digital EPs on FSOLDigital. The Blackhill Transmitter EP boasted grainy cover art, a spooky hauntological sound and a title named after the UK's last analogue television transmitter; the EMS:Piano EP was recorded to analogue tape using the 1970s EMS Synthi and Daniel Pemberton's piano playing; the Sand Sound Folly EP was heavily influenced by progressive folk. These were followed shortly after by the first new Amorphous Androgynous material in five years, which had a similarly 1970s bent, acting as an imaginary blacksploitation soundtrack entitled The Cartel. A mix of Cartel material was broadcast on Solid Steel radio, but otherwise these FSOLDigital releases remained largely under the radar, with most information spread by word-of-mouth. Almost all news was spread via Brian's STAKKERHUMANOID YouTube channel, the FSOL Facebook page, and through regular updates to the Galaxial Pharmaceutical news site and forum.
2014's releases continued the retro theme, including What's It All About? by Glass Girl, a collection of analogue synth tracks purportedly recorded by a neighbour of Brian's in 1983 (although largely believed to be a recent Dougans project), and a second Blackhill Transmitter EP. 2014 also saw the final scrapping of the Noel Gallagher collaborative album after much speculation in the press. The media attempted to start a war of words via Gallagher's typically outspoken interviews and some misquoting from Cobain, but this mostly failed. Gaz, connecting with fans via Facebook, expressed his disappointment in the collapse of the project and the way the band had been portrayed by Gallagher in the press, but explained there was no bad blood between Noel and himself.
Gaz's Facebook presence also gave fans an opportunity to read his more candid thoughts on the band's past and present. Having rarely discussed FSOL since 2003, he began to express regrets that the project had fallen by the wayside, and was pleased to announce that Environment Five contained entirely new Future Sound of London material. The album was released in late 2014 and was met with a similar response to the previous volumes in the series, with reviews appearing - albeit through word of mouth rather than a promotional campaign - in some online publications. The album was seen as a continuation of the evolution evidenced on the previous volume, with acoustic instrumentation and progressive rock touches combining with analogue electronics. The album also resurrected the modern classical touches of the second and third volumes of the series. Described as exploring "the space / time / dimension that exists when we die", it took the project in a more philosophical direction for the first time, and away from literal soundscapes. The album also marked a return to vinyl releases for the band. A bonus EP included with purchases from FSOLDigital included a track made entirely using Brian's father's EMS Synthi, which was announced to be the ninth Electric Brainstorm, suggesting the EBS project was becoming a multimedia concept. The tenth in the series appeared as a 15 minute mix on the radio show Terminal Radio at the end of the year.
The nostalgic, retro sound continued in 2015 with the Blackhill Transmitter project becoming a major part of the FSOLDigital canon, including the availability of t-shirts and a third EP release. Inspired by an interview for the FSOLBoard, Brian reissued the 1991 Intelligent Communication EP along with new remixes of the opening track 'Drive', following the Terminal Radio mix as a continuing collaboration with the band's dedicated fanbase. An eighth Archive followed later in the year, charting a potential alternate timeline of the band in which they pursued a stark, minimal electronic sounds rather than their lush soundscapes. By this point, The Amorphous Androgynous project had returned to the studio with a new lease of life, first putting out a fourth Monstrous Psychedelic Bubble compilation entitled The Wizards of Oz, focusing entirely on music from Australia and New Zealand (the typically positive reviews encouraged a new burst of remix activity from the group); second, Gaz's regular studio updates on Facebook gave fans an insight into the recording of the follow-up to The Peppermint Tree. The videos featured collaborations with Nick McCabe of The Verve and Paul Weller. 2015 ended with two books looking back over the band's past: Artworks 1 featured FSOLDigital-era cover art and came with a bonus EP of four new tracks; The Most Important Moments in a Life was a nostalgic scrapbook charting the history of the band, accompanied by a CD album called Life in Moments.
2016 began with more 1970s-tinged sounds from the FSOLDigital catalogue, with the first Blackhill Transmitter album coming out as a vinyl release only, and an entire album made using nothing but Brian's EMS Synthi called Ignition of the Sun being sold as a limited CDr through FSOLDigital, before receiving a wide-scale release again as vinyl-only.
Future of the bandEdit
Through album art, website updates and conversations with fans, Dougans and Cobain have hinted at myriad forthcoming releases, some considerably more likely than others. Currently their primary projects are completing the next Amorphous Androgynous album, and preparing the release of Environments 6, the latter due at some point in 2016. While Brian's fascination with classic analogue gear and Gaz's love of all things psychedelic will no doubt continue to influence the range of projects coming out through FSOLDigital, an entirely new Future Sound of London album, separate from the Environments series, is gradually in the works, with the band planning to make it adventurous enough to live up to the prospect - it is believed that they are beginning to work with samples again. There is likely to be more multi-media work somewhere down the line. The one thing they will most certainly do, however, is to continue surprising listeners with unexpected projects and new directions. If one word sums up The Future Sound of London more than any other, it is 'unpredictable'.
- Amorphous Androgynous
- Art Science Technology
- Deep Field
- Dope Module
- Heads Of Agreement
- Indo Tribe
- Intelligent Communication
- Mental Cube
- Sand Sound Folly
- Semi Real
- Six Oscillators in Remittance
- Smart Systems
- Suburban Domestic
- The Far-out Son Of Lung
- The Jazz Mags
- The Orgone Accumulator
- Unit 2449